ATP regeneration systems

Many enzymatic reactions require ATP as a co-substrate, and the availability of ATP can be a limiting factor in biocatalytic processes. To overcome this challenge, ATP regeneration systems have been developed, enabling sustainable and cost-effective biocatalytic synthesis. ATP regeneration systems involve coupling the desired biocatalytic reaction with an ATP-generating enzyme. These ATP-generating enzymes are carefully selected and optimized to work in tandem with the target biocatalyst, allowing for efficient and continuous ATP recycling during the biocatalytic process.

Advantages of ATP regeneration:

  • Ensuring constant adequate ATP levels throughout the process generally improves yield and reaction velocity of an enzymatic reaction.
  • ATP regeneration may be used to reduce starting ATP levels to overcome inhibitory effects in single or coupled reactions.
  • By utilizing renewable and inexpensive substrates for ATP generation, ATP regeneration systems can reduce the reliance on costly and resource-intensive sources of ATP.

ATP regeneration by acetate kinase using acetylphosphate as phosphate donor.

ATP regeneration by creatine kinase using creatine phosphate as phosphate donor.

ATP regeneration by pyruvate kinase using phosphoenol-pyruvate as phosphate donor.